"In Pursuit of Innovation, Interdisciplinary Collaboration, Internationalization & Inclusive Development"

Doctor of Philosophy in Community Development

 

Brief description of the major field

Community Development is an applied social science, which hinges on the planned change approach with focus on social consciousness, community values, people and community empowerment for sustainable development. The loci of study are the community, the local government, and other local institutions. 

The program prepares individuals to take on the challenge of empowering local communities to develop effective strategies for identifying community goals and maximizing their assets to achieve these goals. It builds both practical and analytical skills to address these challenges. Blending theory and practice, the program enables students to better understand complex linkages between local action and the processes of policy making at various levels. Students learn to critically examine the complex roles and effectiveness of local institutions in community development. The course of study allows students to employ and critique traditional and emerging community strategies and tools.

A core principle of the program is that graduates will become community developers who learn directly from community members about their needs, resources, and priorities and how best to mobilize local action to improve community people’s well-being and conditions. The program draws resources and experiences from diverse development programs.

Official Acronym: Ph D CD

Units/offering the major field: Institute of Community Education

 

Prospective Students

Graduates of relevant Master’s degree who are into teaching, research and development work.

 

Opportunities

Graduates of the program may become community development practitioners, consultants in government and nongovernmental developmental programs, researchers, local government administrators, development managers, and educators.

 

Requirements and Mechanics to Graduate

The PhD CD program requires a minimum of 45-48 units, these are 23 units of major courses, 9 or 12 units of cognate courses, 1 unit of graduate seminar and 12 units of dissertation. The major courses are composed of core courses (CED 227, CED 301, CED 365, AERS 281, AERS 282*. CED 291); 6 units of specialization courses (CED 250*, CED 252*, CED 251, AERS 267) and 3 units of electives (DM 220, SOC 292, CED 246, CED 253).

*Required if not taken in the MS program 
If CED 291 has been taken, additional social science statistics or qualitative research methods may be required.

 

Graduate Courses

Community Education

CED 201. Philosophy of Education (3). Significant theories and principles of education and their implications for development education in the Philippines. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1,2) 

CED 202. Theory and Practice of Community Education (3). Theoretical underpinnings and strategies in community education. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1,2)

CED 210. Managing Education for Community Welfare (3). Management principles and tools for productivity and quality improvement in education within the community. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1,2)

CED 211. Advanced Educational Psychology (3). Psychological theories and principles underlying the learning processes. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1)

CED 213. Instructional Systems Design and Management (3). Principles, approaches, and processes in designing and managing instructional systems. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI (2)

CED 215. Leadership for Educational and Community Productivity (3). Leadership behavior, theories, qualities, approaches, skills and techniques. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (2)

CED 217. Educational Planning (3). Concepts, procedures and tools in developing plans at various levels and types of educational systems. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (2) 

CED 220. Sociology of Education (3). Analysis of education as a factor in social change; the sociological significance of schools and other social institutions in rural development; social factors in the learning process. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (2)

CED 224. Economics of Education (3). Application of the economics in the analysis of problems and issues in financing education, both formal and nonformal, particularly in low-income countries. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1)

CED 226. Educational Evaluation (3). Measurement approaches, evaluation techniques, models and processes in determining the effectiveness of formal education training programs. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1 

CED 227. Administrative Theory (3). Management theories and concepts as they relate to organizations with emphasis on educational institutions; forces in the organization and the external environment and their influence on managerial roles, functions, and management policies. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (2)

CED 231. Vocational Education in Agriculture (3). Concepts of vocational education in agriculture; current trends and issues as they relate to the development process. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1)

CED 232/SOC 232. Advanced Social Psychology (3). Issues in social perception, cognition, social influence and social relationships. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (2) 

CED 233. Experiential Learning Programs in Agriculture (3). Identification and analysis of contemporary issues and problems in conducting experiential learning programs in agriculture. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1)

CED 240. Extension Science (3). The theory and practice of extension. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1)

CED 242. Adult Education in Agriculture (3). A course to acquaint prospective teachers, agricultural leaders, and community workers regarding ways of developing programs for young and adult farmers, and effective methods of teaching adults. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1)

CED 244. Comparative Analysis of Extension Approaches (3). Analysis of different extension approaches and their application under varied socioeconomic and physical milieux. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (2)

CED 246. Evaluation in Rural Development (3). The nature, principles, and role of evaluation in vocational agriculture education; extension education, and community development; selection, construction, and use of evaluation devices. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1,2)

CED 248. Participatory Extension (3). Concepts and practice in community-based participatory extension and action research planning and development. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (2)

CED 250. Community Development (3). Philosophy, principles, and problems of community development in the Philippines. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1) 

CED 251. Comparative Community Development (3). Analysis of the characteristics of national community development programs in selected countries, with emphasis on their comparative merits and demerits and on the extraction of elements that may have universal application. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (2)

CED 252. Planning and Administration of Community Development (3). Features of community development programs in the Philippines, their organization, administrative planning, interrelationship with local government units, financing, personnel administration, field execution, and evaluation. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1,2)

CED 253. Comparative Local Government (3). Organization, management, and finance of local rural government in selected high-income and low-income countries, including the relationship between level of government and the alternative to local autonomy. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1)

CED 290. Special Problems (1-3). May be taken twice provided that the total number of units to be credited to the student’s program will not exceed 4 units. (1,2)

CED 291. Special Topics (1-3). May be taken twice provided that the total number of units to be credited to the student’s program will not exceed 4 units. (1,2)

CED 298. Field Studies (3). PR. COI. (1,2,S)

CED 299. Graduate Seminar (1). (1,2)

CED 300. Master’s Thesis (6). (1,2,S) 

CED 301. Philosophical Ideas in Development (3). Philosophical traditions in development and conceptual frameworks for analyzing contemporary development programs. 3 hrs (class). PR. COI. (1)

CED 365. Rural Institutions (3). Identification, description, and analysis of changes taking place in rural institutions, which relate to the economic, social, political, and cultural life of the rural population. 3 hrs (class). PR. AERS 265 or AERS 261 or COI. (1,2)

CED 400. Doctoral Dissertation (12). (1,2,S)

 

Faculty Information

Name

Specialization

Highest educational attainment

Josefina T. Dizon

Community Development

Ph.D.

Rowena DT. Baconguis

Extension Education

Ph.D.

Maria Ana T. Quimbo

Education (Research and Evaluation)

 

Ph.D.

 

Virginia R. Cardenas

Extension Education

 

Ph.D.

 

Ernesto L. Bumatay

Education (Educational Administration)

 

Ph.D.

 

Contact Information

Key Person/s: The Director, Institute of Community Education

Phone Number/s: +63 49 5364267

Email Address/es[email protected]

e-FORMS

GS IN ACTION

 Source: UPLB website

The UPLB Graduate School marked milestones with the launching of two new masters-level degree programs and the celebration of its 42nd founding anniversary on December 1.

At the Thanksgiving Dinner-Fellowship held at the Graduate School multi-purpose hall, UPLB Chancellor Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr. led the launching of the Master of Science in Entomology, an off-campus program implemented in partnership with ANFLO Management and Investment Corporation (ANFLOCOR) in Panabo City, Davao del Norte. He also relaunched the Professional Masters in Tropical Marine Ecosystem Management (PM-TMEM), a joint program with the UP Marine Science Institute (MSI) of UP Diliman and UP Visayas.

read more

Article by Mark Jayson E. Gloria, UPLB website

UP President Alfredo E. Pascual enjoined the UPLB graduate education faculty to intensify the internationalization of graduate programs during the Graduate Faculty Conference on Feb. 15 at the Tagaytay International Convention Center. Pascual, who gave the keynote speech during the Conference, said that UP’s mandate as a research, graduate, and regional/global university are intertwined and interrelated. He also commended UPLB’s tradition of excellence as a graduate and research university, especially in agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, and biotechnology.

read more

Posted on March 4, 2015 by upweb_wordpress in In the News, Article by Jo. Florendo B. Lontoc, photos by Abraham Arboleda


Responding to the mandates officially spelled out in Republic Act 9500 or the new UP System Charter of 2008, which elects UP to be a research and graduate university, among other roles, the UP Los Baños Graduate School convened a faculty conference to plot the path of the school to the future. The conference titled “Responding to the Challenges of a Research and Graduate University” was held on February 15 and 16, 2015 at the Tagaytay International Convention Center. It was attended by around 260 participants consisting of junior and senior graduate faculty members, committee chairs of degree-granting units, college deans, institute directors, department chairs, and heads of UP campuses.

read more

What was once a silent and unoccupied area at the back of the Graduate School (GS) Building will soon become the site of a modern hub for graduate and international students of UPLB.

It will be called the Graduate School International Student and Cultural Center Building, as officially announced during the groundbreaking ceremony on Dec. 2.

UP System, UPLB, and Nagoya University bigwigs were present during the occasion, which served as one of the highlights of the School’s 43rd founding anniversary.

               UP President Alfredo E. Pascual and Vice-President for Legal Affairs Hector Danny D. Uy joined UPLB Chancellor Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr., Graduate School Dean Jose V. Camacho, Jr., and Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs Portia G. Lapitan in the traditional groundbreaking ceremonies. read more

UP and Nagoya University (NU), through President Alfredo E. Pascual and UPLB Chancellor Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr. and NU President Seiichi Matsuo, respectively, have inked an agreement for UPLB to host the Nagoya University Asian Satellite Campus (NUASC) through the UPLB Graduate School.

This agreement makes the Philippines the eighth country to host the NUASC through which the Transnational Doctoral Programs for Leading Professionals in Asian Countries will be implemented. This will enable Filipino doctoral candidates to enroll in NU doctoral programs without having to be physically present in Nagoya for the whole duration of the course.

The agreement was formalized at the Executive Conference Room in BM Gonzalez Hall, UPLB on Dec. 2. Dr. Jose V. Camacho, Jr., dean, Graduate School and Dr. Fumio Isoda, director, Nagoya University Asian Satellite Campuses Institute, served as witnesses of the signing of the memorandum of agreement (MOA). read more

UPLB and Nagoya University (NU) formally opened the NU satellite campus in the Philippines and held the International Symposium on the Internationalization of Graduate Education at Acacia Hotel in Alabang, Muntinlupa City on March 8.

UPLB Chancellor Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr.  said in his message during the opening program that to be a globally competitive research and graduate university, UPLB must pursue joint programs and collaborative activities with international academic and research institutions. He cited as an example the Philippines Transnational Ph.D. Program for Leading Professionals in Asian Countries being implemented by UPLB and NU.  

UP President Alfredo E. Pascual added that the program takes the University to a higher level and a step closer to being a globalized institution in terms of research and graduate education.  It will also allow experts to build lifelong partnerships with NU without leaving the country. He issued a challenge for UPLB to become a leader in global intellectual conversations of tomorrow. read more

The Graduate School (GS) and the College of Public Affairs and Development (CPAf), together with UP Mindanao, launched the Mindanao Development Studies Seminars (MDSS) on May 13-14 at UP Mindanao, Davao City. 


The MDSS aims to stimulate critical discussion about contemporary issues and challenges affecting the development of Mindanao. 


Dr. Portia G. Lapitan, vice chancellor for academic affairs who delivered a speech on behalf of Chancellor Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr. reiterated the importance of Mindanao in the development of the country. She expressed her hopes that through the MDSS, participants would gain a more thorough insight of the issues affecting Mindanao.

“It is also my hope that this seminar would pave the way for scholars to engage in further discourse about Mindanao’s key concerns and strive to influence national policies that would benefit the people of Mindanao,” she added. read more

 

The Graduate School will hold its Hooding and Recognition Ceremony on June 24 at the DL Umali Freedom Park. During this occasion, the students who will have finished their doctoral program will be conferred their degrees through a ceremony in which their academic regalia (hoods) would be put on them by their advisers and University officials led by Chancellor Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr and Dr. Jose V. Camacho, Jr., dean of the Graduate School.

The guest of honor and keynote speaker for this year’s ceremonies is Dr. Chamnian Yosraj, president of Maejo University in Thailand. Dr. Yosraj is a UPLB alumnus, having earned both his MS and Ph.D. degrees in Animal Science in 1983 and 1990, respectively. read more

The UPLB Graduate School (GS) held its 2016 Hooding and Recognition Ceremonies on June 24 at the DL Umali Freedom Park. Of the 279 graduates, 229 obtained master’s degrees and 50 earned doctorate degrees.

In his opening remarks, Chancellor Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr. expressed confidence that the graduates will exceed expectations around them. “UPLB has prepared you to become leaders who have the intellectual capacity and the heart to contribute to your respective communities,” he said.  He also encouraged the graduates to use the knowledge they gained from the University not only in pursuing academic and intellectual endeavors, but also in addressing social concerns. read more

“How do you thank your benefactors? How do you thank the Filipino taxpayers? How do you thank the Filipino people as a whole?” asked UP President Alfredo E. Pascual to the 2,245-strong UPLB Class of 2016 on June 25 at the DL Umali Freedom Park.

President Pascual was the keynote speaker during the 44th Commencement Exercises of UPLB that started at six o’clock in the morning, a deviation from the usual afternoon-to-evening ceremonies in the University. He was introduced by Chancellor Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr. read more

UPLB and Kobe University (KU) in Japan have signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) to jointly develop academic programs and projects that will benefit both in their instruction, research and training programs.

The MOU, which covers a 5-year period, was signed by KU President Hiroshi Takeda on March 23 in KU while UPLB chancellor, Dr. Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr. signed it on April 21 at the BM Gonzalez Hall in UPLB. read more

UPLB, through the Graduate School (GS) and the College of Economics and Management (CEM) has launched the off-campus Master of Management program for employees of the Procurement Service of the Department of Budget and Management (PS-DBM) at the DBM headquarters in Paco, Manila on Nov. 26.

PS-DBM has provided partial scholarships to its deserving employees who will be on the MMgt program that is being implemented by UPLB for continuing organizational development in the former. According to Atty. Tomas C. Syquia, executive director of PS-DBM, “to be the best, we must be taught by the best,” referring to the choice of UPLB as the partner institution. read me

In celebration of its 37th anniversary, the International Students Association (ISA), in cooperation with the International Student Services of the Office of Student Affairs (OSA), staged its annual cultural night at the DL Umali Hall on Oct. 14.

According to Dr. Nina Cadiz, OSA director, the event was “meant to promote the welfare and cooperation of foreign students in UPLB and to promote the benefits of internationalization in a University” such as UPLB.

With the theme “Unifying Force for Global Community,” the event featured song and dance performances of students from the Philippines, Indonesia, Timor Leste, Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Nigeria. read more

In order to modernize pedagogy and equip faculty members with technology-mediated teaching strategies, the Interactive Learning Center (ILC) and Graduate School (GS) co-sponsored the workshop on Graduate Program Innovations: Hands-On Training on Blended Learning for faculty members on July 27-28, at the ILC Computer Laboratory, CAS Annex I Bldg.   

Dr. Jose V. Camacho, Jr., GS dean, lauded the participants for attending the workshop despite the fact that they were on teacher’s leave. He said that since faculty members are in the forefront of the internalization efforts of the University and UPLB-GS has already embarked on off-campus offering, there is a need to conduct training programs on technology-mediated approaches that would help enhance the graduate programs of the University. read more

The UPLB Graduate School (GS) conducted its 2015 Hooding and Recognition Ceremonies on July 3 at the DL Umali Hall, conferring degrees on 48 Ph.D. and 212 masters candidates. It also gave recognition to its top five Ph.D. and masters candidates, and two recipients of special awards.

In his opening remarks, Chancellor Fernando C. Sanchez, Jr. advised the graduate students to actively participate in collaborative research activities that promote knowledge building and policy making, to publish their work, and serve the people. He further explained that as the ASEAN integration promotes mobility among faculty and students, it also presents UPLB an opportunity to pursue research and development policies in the region. read more

The Graduate School welcomes new staff officials to improve and strengthen its graduate services. On 15 November 2017, Dr. Mark Dondi M. Arboleda, former School Secretary since 2015, was officially appointed as Associate Dean; Dr. Aimee Lynn A. Barrion-Dupo as School Secretary; and Ms. Nanette A. Aquino as Assistant Secretary. Read more

Dr. Aimee Lynn Barrion-Dupo, Graduate School Secretary, was one of the 68 awardees of the UP Scientific Productivity System for CY 2017. 

The UP Scientific Productivity System (SPS) aims to support the development of science and technology; and encourage and reward scientific productivity. 

The nominees are evaluated according to the following: Scientific Productivity as measured by scientific publications, significant technological output and discoveries; Scientific Standing; and professional Standing

Visit http://ovpaa.up.edu.ph/up-scientific-productivity-system-2/ for more details on the UP Scientific Productivity System.

IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENTS

All GS students are REQUIRED to have the following 1) UP Mail 2) SAIS Access 3) Payment Appointment System Access and 4) GS Portal account. 

1) To obtain UP Mail, email helpdesk@up.edu.ph and request for a UP Mail. Attach an image of your Form 5 or UPLB Student ID.

(UP Mail has the @up.edu.ph extension it is DIFFERENT from UPLB Liham with the @uplb.edu.ph extension)

2) After obtaining a UP Mail, go to the SAIS Team at the Office of the University Registrar and obtain your SAIS Access credentials (username and password)

3) At the same time register your UP Mail to the Payment Appointment System with the SAIS Team.

4) To obtain a GS Portal Account go to: https://uplbgraduateschool.org/gsportal, Register and email lgbolanos@up.edu.ph with an image of your UPLB student ID for activation. 

Oct. 15, 2017 - All Master's: Nomination of Guidance Committee and Plan of Study
Oct. 15, 2017 - PhD: Nomination of Advisory Committee
Nov. 15, 2017 - PhD: Qualifying Exam
Dec. 15, 2017 - PhD: Plan of Study

STUDENTS ENROLLED IN 300/400
Dec. 15, 2017 - Thesis/Dissertation Outline

Probationary students need to satisfy the conditions for conversion to regular within this semester, if not submit a Letter Request for Extension of Probationary Status on or before Dec 15. 

If deadlines are not met accomplish a Waiver of Requirement/s Form and submit on Oct. 15 for new master's and Dec. 15 for PhD and students enrolled in 300/400.

Noncompliance may result in the deactivation of your SAIS enrollment access.

* it the deadline falls on a non working day, the working day immediately after that date shall be the deadline.

All Graduating Students this First Semester 2017-2018 must accomplish the Online Application for Graduation on or before September 29, 2017.
Click this link for the Online Application for Graduation: Online Application for Graduation e-Form

As University Policy No Application for Graduation, No Graduation

The DEADLINE of submission of the following GS requirements has been extended until Oct. 30, 2017.
1) Nomination of Advisory Committee for PHD: https://www.uplbgraduateschool.org/generatenac_phd
2) Nomination of Guidance Committee and Plan of Coursework for Masters: https://www.uplbgraduateschool.org/generatenogc-and-pos-filt
If you can't submit until Oct 30 then submit an Application for Waiver of Requirements instead, on the same date (Oct 30). (https://www.uplbgraduateschool.org/request4waiverform).

Nov. 9: Deadline of Submission of COI for Pre-registration

Nov. 13- 16: Pre-registration

Dec. 15: TAGGING OF DELINQUENT STUDENTS

Jan. 5: Deadline of Submission of COI for general registration

Jan. 10- 13 8AM - 9 PM: Online General Registration

Jan. 15-24: Late Registration

Jan. 16: Start of Classes

Jan 24: Last day of Registration

The deadline for submission of grades of First Semester 2017-2018 graduating students (300,400) has been extended to December 19, 2017.The extension has been made in consideration for our graduating students who submitted their manuscripts for external evaluation on time but have just recently received their reviewer's comments.

ATTENTION GRADUATING STUDENTS.

 Click here to view the schedule of final exam and External review for 2nd Sem 2017-2018 for thesis/dissertation programs.

All graduating students must apply for graduation online at: https://uplbgraduateschool.org/applicationforgraduation
make sure to have a working UP mail address. for any problem regarding the online application for graduation email: lgbolanos@up.edu.ph

ATTENTION GS STUDENTS AND FACULTY

As a Graduate School initiative to streamline its services, here is the GS Calendar for your reference.

Kindly take note of important dates for the submission of pertinent GS documents.

We look forward to your continuous cooperation.

Click this link fof the GS Calendar for 2nd Semester 2017-2018

The Orientation for New Graduate Students will be on Feb. 26, 2018 3 PM at CEM REDREC Auditorium (corner of Harold Cuzner “Royal Palm” Avenue and Jose Capinpin St.) Excuse slips will be given after the event for those who have classes.

The Orientation for New Graduate Students is an event conducted every semester to familiarize new students with the University and Graduate School Policies, Rules and Regulations, acquaint them with the Graduate School Staff and foster linkages among them.

For those who can't attend make sure to read: https://www.uplbgraduateschool.org/current-students/gs-policies-rules--regulations/   

The Deadline for filling application for final examination (PhD & Master’s with thesis) has been extended until April 20, 2018. 

The Deadline for the actual conduct of Final Examinations remains the same: May 4, 2018.

The Official Graduate School page is https://www.facebook.com/UPLBGradSch/ . Information for the general public are usually posted there.

The Official UPLB Graduate Student's Group is https://www.facebook.com/groups/UPLBGradStudents/, a closed group for bonafide UPLB-GS Students only. Announcements and other useful information aimed for students are posted there. All GS students are encouraged to join the group.

 

FROM: The University Registrar through the GS School Secretary

In relation to the Data Privacy Act, all Graduate School candidates for graduation for 2nd Sem. 2017-2018 are requested to sign the attached data privacy consent form. (click this link --> for the data privacy consent form)

Your consent is needed so that your name will be included in the UPLB Commencement Program.

The signed form should be submitted in hard and soft copies to the Office of the Graduate School Secretary (kindly send to: gs.uplb@up.edu.ph using your UP Mail with a subject: DATA PRIVACY CONSENT FORM) for consolidation on or before May 31, 2018.

The UPLB Graduate School will wait for the grade submissions, signed approval pages and the three unbound copies of the manuscript until June 5, 2018, 5:00 pm.

To the Graduate Faculty,

Because your presence is valued by the Graduate School, may we invite you to attend the June 06 2018 faculty meeting at 10:30 am (instead of the previously announced 8:30am) In this way, we can also attend our respective college faculty meetings. We look forward to seeing you all on the 6th. 

 

ATTENTION GRADUATING STUDENTS.

 Click here to view the schedule of final exam and External review for Mid Year 2018 for thesis/dissertation programs.

All graduating students must apply for graduation online at: https://uplbgraduateschool.org/applicationforgraduation
make sure to have a working UP mail address. for any problem regarding the online application for graduation email: lgbolanos@up.edu.ph

Class Schedule as of July 9, 2018 for those who can't/don't have access to SAIS and to view courses that requires COI. (see last column if it is marked with I or D it is required to submit COI). Use SAIS to view the updated Class Schedule.

Click to view --> First Semeter 2018-2019 Class Schedule (as of July 9, 2018)

Click to view -->​ Enrollment Procedure for New Graduate Students V.3.0 July 20, 2018 

Click to view --> Enrollment Procedure for Continuing Graduate Students

 

UPCOMING EVENTS

POSTINGS

Dr. Mark Dondi M. Arboleda takes-over as secretary of UPLB Graduate School effective March 4, 2015.

He succeeds Dr. Willie P. Abasolo who was appointed by the UP Board of Regents as the new dean of the College of Forestry and Natural Resources on March 3, 2015.

Read More

 

The 43rd Commencement Exercises of UPLB will be held on Saturday, July 4, 2015 at the D.L. Umali Freedom Park in front of the D.L. Umali HAll (UPLB Auditorium).

Click here to download the instructions

 

 

 

 

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